Strains of E. coli bacteria are capable of producing a biofuel almost identical to diesel.
The importance of the discovery hinges around the idea of "drop-in" fuels -- that existing technology which runs on diesel would not need to be modified in order to utilise the biofuel meaning the costs to business of switching energy sources would be minimal.
"Producing a commercial biofuel that can be used without needing to modify vehicles has been the goal of this project from the outset," said Professor John Love from the University of Exeter's Biosciences department."Replacing conventional diesel with a carbon neutral biofuel in commercial volumes would be a tremendous step towards meeting our target of an 80 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. Global demand for energy is rising and a fuel that is independent of both global oil price fluctuations and political instability is an increasingly attractive prospect." The E. coli uses a natural oil production process to convert sugars into fats which are then used in the bacteria's cell membrane. By genetically altering the E. coli the researchers were able to convert the sugars to the imitation fossil fuel (perhaps faux-sil fuel?) instead. Unfortunately the process only yields tiny amounts of biodiesel at present meaning that before we can switch energy sources bioscientists will need to find a way to refine the process and produce industrial quantities of fuel.
An anti-cocaine vaccine has been used successfully on non-human primates, bringing it one step closer to approval for use in human addiction therapy.
The vaccine (dAd5GNE) combines elements of the common cold virus with the particle GNE, which mimics cocaine. The vaccine works by preventing the dopamine high associated with taking cocaine.
"The vaccine eats up the cocaine in the blood like a little Pac-Man before it can reach the brain," said Ronald G Crystal, lead author of the study and chairman of the Department of Genetic Medicine at Weill Cornell Medical College."We believe this strategy is a win-win for those individuals, among the estimated 1.4 million cocaine users in the United States, who are committed to breaking their addiction to the drug. Even if a person who receives the anti-cocaine vaccine falls off the wagon, cocaine will have no effect." Cocaine works by binding to a dopamine transporter and blocking the recycling of dopamine in two areas of the brain (the putamen in the forebrain and the caudate nucleus, in case you were wondering) meaning those areas get flooded with dopamine and produce the drug high. The vaccine encourages the body to treat cocaine as an intruder and mount an immune response against the drug. According to the results of the study, non-human primates who had received the vaccine showed greatly reduced levels of cocaine binding to the dopamine transmitter. Less than 20 percent, in fact, which the study notes is "significantly below the 47 percent threshold required to evoke the subjective 'high' reported in humans". The results look promising but, if the vaccine is to help humans rather than coked up primates of different species, further studies will be required. One of the key questions non-human testing cannot help with is how effective the vaccine will actually be and how often it would need administering. "An anti-cocaine vaccination will require booster shots in humans, but we don't know yet how often these booster shots will be needed," said Crystal. "I believe that for those people who desperately want to break their addiction, a series of vaccinations will help."
To find out more about the research, don't miss this in-depth feature from our March issue, titled Addiction injection: the mission to immunise drug users against dependency.
In this documentary titled "Cancer : The Forbidden Cures" we discover many effective and highly successful forms of cancer treatment that have been suppressed and discredited for a long time by the pharmaco-medical crime syndicate and the state-terrorist organization called FDA. Millions of people could have been saved. The FDA may have killed more people than Hitler. In the last 100 years dozens of doctors, scientists and researchers have come up with the most diverse, apparently effective solutions against cancer, but none of these was ever taken into serious consideration by official medicine. Most of them were in fact rejected out-front, even though healings were claimed in the thousands, their proposers often being labeled as charlatans, ostracized by the medical community and ultimately forced to leave the country. At the same time more than 20,000 people die of cancer every day, without official medicine being able to offer a true sense of hope to those affected by it. Why? Subscribe on YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/user/TheNatura... Like us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TheNaturalWa... Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/TheNaturalWayTV
- The “trendsetters” approach uses observed sea ice trends. These data show that the total amount of sea ice decreased rapidly over the previous decade. Using those trends, this approach extrapolates to a nearly sea ice-free Arctic by 2020.
- The “stochasters” approach is based on assuming future multiple, but random in time, large sea ice loss events such as those that occurred in 2007 and 2012. This method estimates it would take several more events to reach a nearly sea ice-free state in the summer. Using the likelihood of such events, this approach suggests a nearly sea ice-free Arctic by about 2030 but with large uncertainty in timing.
- The “modelers” approach is based on using the large collection of global climate model results to predict atmosphere, ocean, land, and sea ice conditions over time. These models show the earliest possible loss of sea ice to be around 2040 as greenhouse gas concentrations increase and the Arctic warms. But the median timing of sea ice loss in these models is closer to 2060. There are several reasons to consider that this median timing of sea ice loss in these models may be too slow.